10 Gigabit Ethernet 10GBase-LR Explained
SFP or Small Form-factor Pluggable is a compact transceiver use for both telecommunication and data communications because it supports different communication standards like Fiber Optics Communication, Gigabit Ethernet, SONET etc. This device can either be optical or electrical and is supported by almost all telecommunication vendors in the industry.
Since the introduction of the 10 Gigabit Ethernet, many optical transceivers have been developed to meet the flexibility of our evolving technology. In the process SFPs also evolved, thus SFP+ or enhanced small form-factor pluggable had been invented to support the growing demand of high speed data communication but maintaining the same size of the older SFP version. Because of this, it gives added flexibility to equipment manufacturers and network operators to reuse existing their physical design or even equipment. Moreover, SFP+ supports higher data rates up to 16Gbps and able to perform at 10GB Ethernet, OTU2 (the standard for Optical Transport Network communication).
10GBase-LR is a type of SFP+, an Ethernet transceivers module designed to be used in a 10 Gigabit Ethernet links particularly over an optical network. It is widely used as an connectivity option for enterprise closets, service provider transport, servers and data centers all over the world due to its safety and reliability.
10GBase-LR transceiver has an LC port in duplex mode and rated to operate to a maximum distance of 10km 0r 6.2 miles over a single mode fiber at 1310nm wavelength. Its laser is classified as Class 1 laser which means it is safe under all condition of normal use. The SFP+ can carry a maximum data rate of 10Gbps. Because this is a hot-pluggable input/output SFP+, it is extremely compatible in an LC patch panel environment that provides the greatest density and versatility. Furthermore, 10Gbase-LR SFP+ is compliance to the Ethernet IEEE 802.3ae standard, SFF-8432 and the SFF-8431 SFP Multi-Source Agreement(MSA).
Some 10GBase –LR functions at -5 degree Celsius up to 70 degrees Celsius and operates at an input voltage ranging from 3 to 3.6 Volts. However, it does not need to be turned on or off when installing or replacing this device. Most of the 10GBase-LR from various vendors have a digital optical monitoring (DOM) which gives the operator the capability to monitor and diagnose its performance. Digital diagnostics are calibrated internally by default. This transceiver is also capable of auto-negotiation and Link status monitoring.
Most of the 10Base-LR that are available in the market today uses a transmitter with a Abry-Perot or Distributed Feedback Laser(DFB) which are more expensive. Although DFBs are costly, they have greater power and longer wavelengths that allows an efficient mating or coupling into the small core of a single mode optical fiber over longer distances.
10Base-LR SFP+ transmitters also have APC or Automatic Power control feedback loop that is installed to maintain a constant average optical power. On the other hand, its receiver uses a PIN detector that is integrated with a trans-impedance amplifier in an eye safe optical assembly(OSA) which is directly connected to an amplifier that limits post amplification and optical signal detection. The 10Base-LR SFP+ digital optical monitoring operates by using a small micro controller unit inside the transceiver that is connected with the limiting amplifier and the driver, this micro controller reports the status of the transceiver to the operator.
The average launch power, receive power, receiver saturation and sensitivity of 10Base-LR SFP+ vary from vendor to vendor. However, their physical characteristics are standardized as LWH 58.9x13.3x13.59 millimeters. Its body is made of compact, high quality metal and has a standard latch for installing or removing. Out of the box, 10Base-LR SFP+ are pre-programmed with all necessary configuration.
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