As we know, transponder is important in optical fiber communications, it is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data and the maximum distance the signal can travel.
Functions of a Fiber Optical Transponder includes:
Electrical and optical signals conversion
Serialzation and deserialization
Control and monitoring
Applications of Fiber Optical Transponder
Multi-rate, bidirectional fiber transponders convert short-reach 10gb/s and 40 gb/s optical signals to long-reach, single-mode dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical interfaces.
The modules can be used to enable DWDM applications such as fiber relief, wavelength services, and Metro optical DWDM access overtay on existing optical infrastructure.
Supporting dense wavelength multiplexing schemes, fiber optic transponders can expand the useable bandwidth of a single optical fiber to over 300 Gb/s.
Transponders also provide a standard line interface for multiple protocols through replaceable 10G small form-factor pluggable (XFP) client-side optics.
The data rate and typical protocols transported include synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) (OC-192 SR1), Gigabit Ethernet (10GBaseS and 10GBaseL), 10G Fibre Channel (10 GFC) and SONET G.709 forward error correction (FEC)(10.709 Gb/s).
Fiber optic transponder modules can also support 3R operation (reshape, retime, regenerate) at supported rates.
Often, fiber optic transponders are used to for testing interoperability and compatibility. Typical tests and measurements include litter performance, receiver sensitivity as a function of bit error rate (BER), and transmission performance based on path penalty.Some fiber optic transponders are also used to perform transmitter eye measurements.
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Let’s image that the architecture that can not support automated reconfigureability. Connectivity is provided via a manual Fibre Optic Patch Panel, a patch panel where equipment within an office is connected via fiber cables to one side (typically in the back), and where short patch cables are used on the other side (typically in the front) to manually interconnect the equipment as desired. There is a point that Fibre Optic Patch Panel, people usually different ports patch panel , for example, 6, 8, 12, 24 port fiber patch panel and they according to different connectors to choose different patch panel, such as LC patch panel, LC patch panel, MTP patch panel…
The traffic that is being added to or dropped from the optical layer at this node is termed add/drop traffic, the traffic that is transmitting the mode is called through traffic. Regardless of the traffic type, note that all of the traffic entering and exiting the node is processed by a WDM transponder. In the course of converting between a WDM-compatible optical signal and a client optical signal, the transponder processes the signal in the electrical domain. Thus, all traffic enters the node in the optical domain, is converted to the electrical domain, and is returned to the optical domain. This architecture, where all traffic undergoes optical electrical (OEO) conversion, is referred to as the OEO architecture.