What is The Fiber Identifier?
The Fiber Identifier acts as the fiber optic installer or technician’s infrared eyes. By placing a slight macrobend in an optical fiber or fiber-optic cable, it can detect infrared light traveling through the optical fiber and determine the direction of light travel. Some fiber identifiers can also detect test pulses from an infrared (800–1700nm) light source.
The fiber identifier typically contains two photodiodes that are used to detect the infrared light. The photodiodes are mounted so that they will be on opposite ends of the macrobend of the optical fiber or fiber-optic cable being tested. The electronics in the fiber identifier measure the detected light energy and display the direction of light travel through the optical fiber.
The optical fiber identifier is used very much like the Fiber Locator (VFL) when it comes to troubleshooting. But there are two difference: One key difference is that the fiber identifier replaces your eyes. Another difference is that fiber optic cable under test typically does not have to be disconnected from an active circuit – it can remain plugged into the transmitter and receiver.The fiber identifier can typically be used with coated optical fiber, tight-buffered optical fiber, a single optical fiber cable, or a ribbon cable. Each of these must be placed in the center of the photodiodes during testing. Selecting the correct attachment for the optical fiber or optical-fiber cable type under test typically does this.
The fiber identifier can also be used with external light source. Often the external light source is an Fiber OTDR. Many OTDR manufacturers build or program in a pulsed output function. When set for a pulsed output, the OTDR emits a continuous pulse train at a predetermined frequency. The electronics in the fiber identifier can detect preset frequencies and illuminate the corresponding LED. This feature can be very helpful when you are trying to identify an unmarked tight-buffered optical fiber within a bundle of tight-buffered optical fibers. This feature can also be helpful when you are trying to approximate the location of a break in the optical fiber.
The fiber identifier can be used with the OTDR to narrow down the location of a break in an optical fiber when a VFL is not available or when the light from the VFL is not visible through the jacket of the fiber optic cable. If the index of refraction is correct, the OTDR should provide an accurate distance to the fault. The OTDR measures the length of optical fiber to the fault, not the length of fiber optic cable. The cable length may be shorter than the optical fiber length.
Once you have found the approximate location of the fault with the OTDR, set the OTDR or infrared light source to pulse at a predetermined frequency. Clamp the fibr identifier on the faulted fiber optic cable several meters before the approximate location of the fault. Check the fiber identifier for the predetermined frequency. If the fiber identifier does not detect the predetermined frequency, move the fiber identifier several meters closer to the OTDR or infrared light source and recheck for the predetermined pulse. If you have choosen the correct fiber optic cable test to the fault of the distance with you, you should be testing a predetermined frequency. If you still don’t test frequency, carefully check everything, and test again. If you still do not detect the predetermined frequency, there may not be enough optical energy for the fiber identifier to function properly.
If you are able to detect the predetermined frequency, move the fiber identifier down the fiber optic cable away from the OTDR or infrared light source in one meter increments. Continue to do this until the fiber identifier no longer detects the predetermined pulse. You now know within one meter where the break in the optical fiber is located. At this point, you may want to disconnect the OTDR or infrared light source and connect the visible fault locator. The visible fault locator may illuminate the exact location of the fault. If the visible fault locator does not illuminate and conditions permit, darken the area around the fault. This may allow you to see the illuminated fault.
Do you know Fiber Optical Transponders?
What is Fiber Optical Transponder?
As we know, transponder is important in optical fiber communications, it is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data and the maximum distance the signal can travel.
Functions of a Fiber Optical Transponder includes:
Electrical and optical signals conversion
Serialzation and deserialization
Control and monitoring
Applications of Fiber Optical Transponder
Multi-rate, bidirectional fiber transponders convert short-reach 10gb/s and 40 gb/s optical signals to long-reach, single-mode dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical interfaces.
The modules can be used to enable DWDM applications such as fiber relief, wavelength services, and Metro optical DWDM access overtay on existing optical infrastructure.
Supporting dense wavelength multiplexing schemes, fiber optic transponders can expand the useable bandwidth of a single optical fiber to over 300 Gb/s.
Transponders also provide a standard line interface for multiple protocols through replaceable 10G small form-factor pluggable (XFP) client-side optics.
The data rate and typical protocols transported include synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) (OC-192 SR1), Gigabit Ethernet (10GBaseS and 10GBaseL), 10G Fibre Channel (10 GFC) and SONET G.709 forward error correction (FEC)(10.709 Gb/s).
Fiber optic transponder modules can also support 3R operation (reshape, retime, regenerate) at supported rates.
Often, fiber optic transponders are used to for testing interoperability and compatibility. Typical tests and measurements include litter performance, receiver sensitivity as a function of bit error rate (BER), and transmission performance based on path penalty.Some fiber optic transponders are also used to perform transmitter eye measurements.
fiber-mart Provides Optical Transponders Solution
Let’s image that the architecture that can not support automated reconfigureability. Connectivity is provided via a manual Fibre Optic Patch Panel, a patch panel where equipment within an office is connected via fiber cables to one side (typically in the back), and where short patch cables are used on the other side (typically in the front) to manually interconnect the equipment as desired. There is a point that Fibre Optic Patch Panel, people usually different ports patch panel , for example, 6, 8, 12, 24 port fiber patch panel and they according to different connectors to choose different patch panel, such as LC patch panel, LC patch panel, MTP patch panel…
The traffic that is being added to or dropped from the optical layer at this node is termed add/drop traffic, the traffic that is transmitting the mode is called through traffic. Regardless of the traffic type, note that all of the traffic entering and exiting the node is processed by a WDM transponder. In the course of converting between a WDM-compatible optical signal and a client optical signal, the transponder processes the signal in the electrical domain. Thus, all traffic enters the node in the optical domain, is converted to the electrical domain, and is returned to the optical domain. This architecture, where all traffic undergoes optical electrical (OEO) conversion, is referred to as the OEO architecture.
Some Notes Of Buying Fiber Pigtails
In any fiber optic cable installation, the way the cables are attached to the system–is vital to the success of the telecommunications network. If done well, the connection allows optical signals to pass with low attenuation and little return loss. One of the proven ways to join optical fibers is with a fiber pigtail–a fiber cable with a installed connector on one end and unterminated fiber on the other end.
Pigtails are basically cable assemblies. Ninety-nine percent of singlemode applications use pigtails, also used in many multimode applications. One of the benefits of using pigtail is lower labor costs. The end of the pigtail is stripped back and fusion spliced to another single fiber. This is done easy in field with a multi-fiber trunk to break out the multi-fibers cable into its component for connection to the end equipment. Installers working with singlemode fiber typically have access to a fusion splicer–an expensive piece of equipment that costs $6000 to $30,000 or more. With a fusion splicer you just splice the pigtail right onto the cable in a minute or less.
Pigtails bridge a critical junction in the fiber-optic network. Pigtails consist of–a connector, a ferrule, standard fiber and jacket types, including singlemode and multimode varieties. The most important element you should know is that the quality of the connector itself. You need to know certain characteristics, such as insertion loss, the type of polish used and how well the connector is terminated to the cable. As fiber cable termination is the addition of connectors to each optical fiber in a cable. The fibers need to have connectors fitted before they can attach to other equipment. Two common solutions for fiber cable termination are pigtails and fanout kits or breakout kits.
Ferrule material, whether zirconia ceramic, plastic or stainless steel, must also be specified when buying a pigtail. If you go with a metal ferrule, it is a waste for any singlemode application.
The length of the pigtail is another element that must be specified. The extra slack allows for splicing errors to be corrected, without it, you may have to start with another pigtail.
Pigtails can have female connectors and be mounted in a wall mount or patch panel, often in pairs although single-fiber solutions exist, to allow them to be connected to endpoints or other fiber runs with patch cables. Alternatively they can have male connectors and plug directly into an optical device. Pigtails are different from patch cords, as both ends with connectors, like common patch cord LC-LC.
Testing a pigtail in the field is not easy. The unterminated end is difficult to check until the pigtail is actually spliced to the equipment.
Quality is typically high because the connectorized end is attached in a controlled environment–fiber-mart.com. fiber-mart.com can make singlemode pigtails more accurately than a field termination can be done.
News for Thursday 23 May, 2019